Diabit Compound Tablets and description of its ingredietnts

Diabit Compound Tablets       245mg

 

  1. Avartaki; Cassia auriculata             100mg
  2. Guduci; Tinospora cordifolia            25mg
  3. Triphala; E.off, T.bel, T.che              25mg
  4. Jambu; Syzygium cuminii                25mg
  5. Udumbara; Ficus racemosa             25mg
  6. Haridra; Curcuma longa                  20mg
  7. Ashwagandha; Withania somnifera 25mg

 

Diabit Compound Tablets       245mg

 

  1. Avartaki; Cassia auriculata 100mg

Cassia auriculata Linn.

Family: Caesalpiniaceae.

Habitat: Wild in dry regions of Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Cultivated in other parts of India.

English: Tanner’s Cassia.

Ayurvedic: Aaavartaki, Aaadaari.

Unani: Tarwar.

Siddha/Tamil: Aavaarai.

Folk: Tarwar.

Action: Roots-used in skin diseases and asthma. Flowers enter into compounds for diabetes, urinary disorders and nocturnal emissions.

 

Pod husk contains nonacosane and nonacosan-6-one, chrysophanol, emodin and rubiadin.

Dosage: Whole plant-50-100 ml (CCRAS.)

 

  1. Guduci; Tinospora cordifolia 25mg

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomas.

Family: Menispermaceae.

Habitat: Tropical India and the Andaman’s.

Ayurvedic: Guduuchi, Guduuchikaa, Guluuchi, Amrita, Amritaa, Amritalataa, Amritavalli, Chinnaruuhaa, Chinnodbhavaa, Madhuparni, Vatsaadani, Tantrikaa, Kundalini. Guduuchisattva (starch).

Unani: Gilo, Gulanchaa. Sat-e-Gilo(starch).

Siddha: Seenil, Amrida-valli.

Folk: Giloya.

 

Action: Herb-antipyretic, ant periodic, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, spasmolytic, hypoglycaemic, hepatoprotective. Water extract increases urine output.

Stem juice-prescribed in high fever; decoction in rheumatic and bilious fevers.

Aqueous extract of the plant-febrifuge. Starch-antacid, antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric.

 

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, along with other therapeutic applications, recommends the dried stems in jaundice, anaemia, polyuria and skin diseases.

 

The stem contains alkaloidal constituents, including berberine; bitter principles, including columbin, chasmanthin, palmarin and tinosporon, tinosporic acid and tinosporol.

 

The drug is reported to possess one fifth of the analgesic effect of sodium salicylate. Its aqueous extract has a high phagocytic index.

Alcoholic extract of the stem shows activity against E. coli. Active principles were found to inhibit in vitro the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Oral administration of alcoholic extract of the root resulted in a significant reduction in blood and urine glucose and in lipids in serum and tissues of alloxan diabetic rats. (Phytother Res. 2003 17 (4), 410-3. )

A significant reduction in levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP and bilirubin were observed following T. cordifolia treatment during CCl4 intoxication in mature rats. (J. Toxicol Sci. 2002, 27 (3), 134-46.) The plant extract showed in vitro inactivating activity in Hepatitis-B surface antigen. (Indian Drugs, 1993, 30, 549.)

 

A new hypoglycaemic agent was isolated from the plant; it was found to be 1, 2-substituted pyrrolidine. The starch from roots and stem, used in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, contains a polysaccharide having 1-4 glucan with occasional branching points.

Dosage: Stem-3-6 g powder; 20-30 g for decoction. (API, Vol . I. )

 

3a. Triphala; E.off, T.bel, T.che 25mg

Amla; Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Synonym: Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

Family: Euphorbiaceae.

Habitat: Native to tropical Southeast Asia; distributed throughout India; also planted in public parks.

English: Emblic, Indian gooseberry.

Ayurvedic: Aaamalaki, Aaamalaka, Dhaatri, Kaayasthaa, Amoghaa, Amritaphala, Amla, Aaamalaa, Dhaatriphala, Vayasyaa, Vrshya, Shiva, Hattha.

Unani: Aamalaa, Amlaj.

Siddha/Tamil: Nellikkaai, Nelli.

Action: Fruit-antianaemic, anabolic, antiemetic, bechic, astringent, antihaemorrhagic, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic, antidiabetic, carminative, antioxidant. Used in jaundice, dyspepsia, bacillary dysentery, eye trouble and as a gastrointestinal tonic. Juice with turmeric powder and honey is prescribed in diabetes insipidus. Seed antibilious, antiasthmatic. Used in bronchitis. Bark-astringent. Leaf-juice is given in vomiting.

 

A decoction of powdered pericarp is prescribed for peptic ulcer.

 

Key application: As an antacid. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.). The fruit is an important source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. The edible fruit tissue contains protein concentration threefold and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) concentration 160-fold than those of apple. The fruit also contains considerably higher concentration of most minerals and amino acids than apple.

 

The fruit gave cytokinine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin riboside and zeatin nucleotide; suspension culture gave phyllembin. Phyllembin exhibits CNS depressant and spas- molytic activity, potentiates action of adrenaline and hypnotic action of Nembutal.

The leaves contain gallic acid (10.8 mg/g dry basis), besides ascorbic and music acid. The methanol extract of the leaves is found to be effective in rat paw inflammation.

 

The bark contains tannin identified as mixed type of proanthocyanidin.

The fruit contains superoxide dismutase 482.14 units/g fresh weight and exhibits antisenescent (antiaging) activity. Fruit, juice, its sediment and residue are antioxidant due to gallic acid. EtOH (50%) extract-anti-viral.

Aqueous extract of the fruit increases cardiac glycogen level and decreases serum GOT, GPT and LDH in rats having induced myocardial necrosis.

Preliminary evidence suggests that the fruit and its juice may lower serum cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and phospholipids without affecting HAL levels and may have positive effect on atherosclerosis. (Eur J clin Nutr, 42, 1988, 939 944; Phytother Res, 14, 2000, 592-595.)

An aqueous extract of the fruit has been reported to provide protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in both pre-and post irradiation treatment. The fruit is reported to enhance natural killer cell activity and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity in mice bearing Dalton’s lymphoma ascites tumour. The extract of the fruit and ascorbic acid prevented hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects induced by lead and aluminium. The toxicity could be counteracted to a great extent by the fruit extract than by an amount of ascorbic acid alone equivalent to that contained in fruits. (The fruit can be used as a dietary supplement to counteract prolonged exposure to metals in population in industrial areas.)

The fruits are reported to activate trypsin (proteolytic enzyme) activity. The fruits can be used as coagulantin the treatment of water and can purify low turbidity water.

The fruits can be consumed safely all round the year.

Dosage: Fresh fruit-10-20 g; pulp juice-5-10 ml. (API Vol . I . )

 

3.b. Bibhitaki; Terminalia chebula Retz.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat: Abundant in Northern India. Also occurs in the forests of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, especially in Konkan.

English: Chebulic Myrobalan, Black Myrobalan.

Ayurvedic: Haritaki, Kaayasthaa, Pathyaa, Shreyasi, Shivaa. (Jivanti, Puutanaa, Vijayaa, Abhayaa, Rohini, Chetaki, Amritaa-according to some scholars, these represent seven varieties of Haritaki; now used as synonyms.)

Unani: Harad, Halelaa siyaah, Halelaa zard, Halelaa Kaabuli (varieties).

Siddha/Tamil: Kadukkai.

 

Action: Gentle purgative, astringent (unripe fruits are more purgative, ripe ones are more astringent; sennoside A and anthraquinone glycoside is laxative, tannins are astringent), stomachic, antibilious, alterative. Used in prescriptions for treating flatulence, constipation, diarrhoea, dysentery, cyst, digestive disorders, vomiting, enlarged liver and spleen, cough and bronchial asthma, and for metabolic harmony. Bark-diuretic.

 

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, along with other therapeutic applications, indicated the use of powder of mature fruits in intermittent fevers, chronic fevers, anaemia and polyuria.

 

The fruits of T. chebula are used in combination with Emblica officinalis and T. bellirica (under the name Triphalaa) in the treatment of liver and kidney dysfunctions. The main purgative ingredient of Triphalaa is T.chebula (the purgative principle is in the pericarp of the fruit).

Shikimic, gallic, triacontanoic and palmitic acids, beta sitosterol, daucosterol, triethyl ester of chebulic acid and ethyl ester of gallic acid; a new ellagitannin, terchebulin, along with punicalagin and teaflavin A have been isolated from the fruits. A new triterpene, chebupentol, and arjungenin, terminoic acid and arjunolic acid were also isolated from the fruit.

Antioxidant constituents of the plant, phloroglucinol and pyrogallol have been isolated along with ferulic, vanillic, p coumaric and caffeic acids. Ether extract showed higher antioxidant activity than BHA and BHT, Acid esters present in phenolic fraction of extract, were found most effective.

Dosage: Pericarp of mature fruit 3-6 g powder. (API, Vol . I . )

 

3c. Haritaki; Terminalia chebula Retz.

Family: Combretaceae.

Habitat:  Abundant in Northern India. Also occurs in the forests of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, especially in Konkan.

English:  Chebulic Myrobalan, Black Myrobalan.

Ayurvedic:  Heritage, Kaayasthaa, Pathyaa, Shreyasi, Shivaa. (Jivanti-, Puutanaa, Vijayaa, Abhayaa, Rohini, Chetaki, Amritaa-according to some scholars, these represent seven varieties of Haritaki; now used as synonyms.)

Unani:  Harad, Halelaa siyaah, Halelaa zard, Halelaa Kaabuli (varieties).

Siddha/Tamil: Kadukkai.

 

Action: Gentle purgative, astringent (unripe fruits are more purgative, ripe ones are more astringent; sennoside A and anthraquinone glycoside is laxative, tannins are astringent), stomachic, anti-bilious, alterative. Used in prescriptions for treating flatulence, constipation, diarrhoea, dysentery, cyst, digestive disorders, vomiting, enlarged liver and spleen, cough and bronchial asthma, and for metabolic harmony.

 

Bark diuretic. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, along with other therapeutic applications, indicated the use of powder of mature fruits in intermittent fevers, chronic fevers, anaemia and polyuria. The fruits of T. chebula are used in combination with Embolic officinalis and T. Billerica (under the name Triphalaa) in the treatment of liver and kidney dysfunctions. The main purgative ingredient of Triphalaa is T. chebula (the purgative principle is in the pericarp of the fruit). Shikimic, gallic, triacontanoic and palmitic acids, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol, triethyl ester of chebulic acid and ethyl ester of gallic acid; a new ellagitannin, terchebulin, along with punicalagin and teaflavin A have been isolated from the fruits. A new triterpene, chebupentol, and arjungenin, terminoic acid and arjunolic acid were also isolated from the fruit. Anti-oxidant constituents of the plant, phloroglucinol and pyrogallol have been isolated along with ferulic, vanillic, p coumaric and caffeic acids. Ether extract showed higher anti-oxidant activity than BHA and BHT, Acid esters present in phenolic fraction of extract, were found most effective.

Dosage:  Pericarp of mature fruit-3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)

 

4          Jambu; Syzygium cuminii 25mg

Syzygium cuminii (Linn.) Skeels.

Synonym:  S. jambolanum (Lam.) DC.

Eugenia jambolana Lam.

Family: Myrtaceae.

Habitat:  Cultivated throughout India up to 1,800 m.

English:  Java Plum, Jambolan, Black Plum.

Ayurvedic:  Jambu, Mahaaphalaa, Phalendraa, Surabhipatra. (Fruit- black.)

Unani: Jaamun

Siddha/Tamil: Naaval.

Action: Fruit-stomachic, carminative, diuretic. Bark and seed-anti-diarrhoeal. Seed hypoglycaemic. Leaf-anti-bacterial, anti-dysenteric.

 

Key application: Bark-in non-specific acute diarrhoea and in topical therapy for mild inflammation of the oral pharyngeal mucosa; externally in mild, superficial inflammation of the skin. (German Commission E.) The seed has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E, as the blood sugar lowering effect could not be established by several researchers. Claimed applications mentioned in German Commission E monograph: in diabetes, also in combination preparations for atonic and spastic constipation, diseases of the pancreas, gastric and pancreatic complaints.

 

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the bark in acute diarrhoea and haemorrhagic diseases; the seed in hyperglycaemia and polyuria.

The aqueous alcoholic extract of the bark contains bergenin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.

 

The fruit contains anthocyanins and yielded citric, malic and Gallic acids. Gallic acid and tannins account for astringency of the fruit. Malic acid is the major acid (0.59%) of the weight of fruit; a small quantity of oxalic acid is reported to be present. Glucose and fructose are principal sugars in the ripe fruit; sucrose was not detected. The seeds contain tannin (about 19%), ellagic acid, gallic acid (1-2%), beta-sitosterol, 0.05% essential oil; myricyl alcohol is present in the unsaponifiable matter.

 

The stem bark yielded friedelan-3- alpha-ol, kaempferol, quercetin, beta- sitosterol and its glycoside, kaempferol- 3-O-glucoside, gallic acid, friedelin and betulinic acid. It contained eugenin and epi-friedelanol. 10-12% tannins were reported.

 

The leaves contain aliphatic alcohols, sitosterols, betulinic acid and crategolic (maslinic) acid. The flowers contain triterpenic acids-oleanolic acid and crategolic acid. The oleanolic acid is a strong protector against adriamycin-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and heart microsomes.

 

Phenols, including methylxanthoxylin and 2, 6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy acetophene have been isolated from the plant (also from the seed).

Seeds in a dose of 10 mg/kg p. o. on normal and alloxanized rabbits exhibited hypoglycaemic activity up to 23 and 20% respectively. The chloroform fraction of seed extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory action against both exudative and proliferative and chronic phases of inflammation, besides exhibiting significant anti-arthritic, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities. Water extract exhibited antibacterial property against S. boydi and S. dysentrae in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. The bark extract is reported to have an effect on glycogenolysis and glycogen storage in animals.

Dosage:  Stem bark-10-20 g for decoction; dried seed-3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. II.)

 

  1. Udumbara; Ficus racemosa 25mg

Ficus racemosa Linn.

Synonym:  F. glomerata Roxb.

Family: Moraceae.

Habitat:  throughout India. Grows wild in forests and hills. Oten found around subterranean water streams.

English:  Cluster Fig, Country Fig.

Ayurvedic:  Udumbara, Sadaaphala, Hema-daudhaka, Jantuphala, Yagyaanga.

Unani:  Anjir-e-Aadam, Anjir-e- Ahmak, Gular.

Siddha/Tamil: Atthi.

 

Action: Astringent and anti-septic; used in threatened abortions, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, urinary disorders, skin diseases, swellings, boils, haemorrhages. Unripe fruits-astringent, carminative, digestive, stomachic; used in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, dysentery, menorrhagia and haemorrhages.

 

Ripe fruits-anti-emetic, also used in haemoptysis. Root and fruit-hypoglycaemic. Bark-decoction is used in skin diseases, inflammations, boils and ulcers.

 

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the use of the bark in lipid disorders and obesity.

Leaves and fruit contain gluacol. The fruit also contains beta-sitosterol, lupeol acetate, friedelin, higher hydrocarbons and other phytosterols.

Petroleum ether extract of the stem bark significantly reduced blood sugar level of rats with streptozotocin- induced diabetes. It completely inhibited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from rat liver. Extracts of fruit and latex did not show any significant effect on blood sugar level of diabetic rats, they inhibited only glucose-6- phosphate but not arginase from rat liver.

An alcoholic extract of the bark has been found to be very effective in reducing blood sugar in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. It helped in improving the damaged beta cells of islets of Langerhans, thus exerting permanent blood sugar lowering effect.

The ethanolic extract of seeds also showed hypoglycaemic activity.

Lignin, the main fibber constituent of the fruit, prevented the rise in serumcholesterol levels of some extent. Fresh whole fruits, used as a source of dietary fibre, exhibited more hypocholesterolemic activity than pure cellulose.

Dosage:  Bark-20-30 g for decoction. (API Vol. I.)

 

  1. Haridra; Curcuma longa 20mg

Curcuma longa Linn.

Synonym:  C. domestica Valeton.

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Habitat:  Cultivated all over India, particularly in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

English:  Turmeric.

Ayurvedic:  Haridraa, Priyaka, Haridruma, Kshanda, Gauri, Kaanchani, Krimighna, Varavarnini, Yoshitapriyaa, Hattavilaasini, Naktaahvaa, Sharvari.

Unani:  Zard Chob.

Siddha/Tamil: Manjal.

 

Action: Anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, hepatoprotective, blood-purifier, anti oxidant, detoxifier and regenerator of liver tissue, anti-asthmatic, anti-tumour, anti cutaneous, anti-protozoal, stomachic, carminative. Reduces high plasma cholesterol. Anti-platelet activity offers protection to heart and vessels. Also protects against DNA damage in lymphocytes.

 

Key application: In dyspeptic conditions. (German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.) As anti-inflammatory, stomachic. (Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) the rhizomes gave curcuminoids, the mixture known as curcumin, consisting of at least four phenolic diarylheptanoids, including curcumin and mono desmethoxy curcumin; volatile oil (3-5%), containing about 60% of turmerones which are sesquiterpene ketones, and bitter principles, sugars, starch, resin.

Curcumin related phenolics possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, gastro protective and hepato protective activities. The anti-oxidant activity of curcumin is comparable to standard anti-oxidants-vitamin C and E, BHA and BHT.

The volatile oil, also curcumin, exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of experimental models (the effects were comparable to those of cortisone and phenylbutazone). Used orally, curcumin prevents the release of inflammatory mediators. It depletes nerve endings of substance P, the neurotransmitter of pain receptors. Curcumin’s cholesterol-lowering actions include interfering with intestinal cholesterol uptake, increasing the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids and increasing the excretion of bile acids via its choleretic effects.

Curcuminoid’s prevent the increases in liver enzymes, SGOT and SGPT; this validates the use of turmeric as a hepato protective drug in liver disorders. Curlone, obtained from the dried rhizome, is used against hepatitis.

Turmeric and curcumin increase the mucin content of the stomach and exert gastro protective effects against stress, alcohol, drug-induced ulcer formation. (Curcumin at doses of  mg/kg weight exhibited ulcerogenic activity in rats.)

The ethanolic extract of the rhizome exhibited blood sugar lowering activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Piperine (a constituent of black and long pepper) enhances absorption and bioavailability of curcumin.

 

Dosage:  Cured rhizome-1-3 g powder. (API Vol. I.)

 

  1. Ashwagandha; Withania somnifera 25mg

Ashwagandha;

Withania ashwagandha Kaul (cultivated var.) W. somnifera (Linn.) Dunal (Chemo-type I, II, and III: Israele.)

Family:  Solanaceae.

Habitat: throughout the drier and subtropical parts of India.

English: Winter Cherry. (Physalisalkekengi is also known as Winter Cherry.)

Ayurvedic: Ashwagandhaa, Hayagandhaa, Ashwakanda, Gandharvagandhaa, Turaga, Turagagandhaa, Turangagandhaa, Vaajigandhaa, Gokarnaa, Vrishaa, Varaahakarni, Varadaa, Balyaa, Vaajikari. (Substitute for Kaakoli and Kshirakaakoli.) Cultivated var.: Asgandh Naagori. (Indian botanists consider the cultivated plants distinct from the wild ones.)

Unani: Asgandh.

Siddha: Amukkuramkizhangu.

 

Action: Root-used as an anti-inflammatory drug for swellings, tumours, scrofula and rheumatism; and as a sedative and hypnotic in anxiety neurosis. Leaf-anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial. Fruits and seeds-diuretic. Withanine-sedative, hypnotic. Withaferin A-major component of biologically active steroids; as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose. Anti-bacterial, anti-tumour, anti-arthritic, significantly protective against hepatotoxicity in rats.

 

The root contains several alkaloids, including withanine, withananine, withananinine, pseudo-withanine, somnine, somniferine, somniferinine. The leaves of Indian chemo type contain 12 withanolides; including withaferin A. Steroidal, lactones of withanolide series have been isolated.

 

Withanine is sedative and hypnotic. Withaferin A is anti-tumour, anti-arthritic and antibacterial. Anti-inflammatory activity has been attributed to biologically active steroids, of which withaferin A is a major component. The activity is comparable to that of hydrocortisone sodium succinate.

 

Withaferin A also showed significantly protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. It was as effective as hydrocortisone dose for dose. The root extract contains an ingredient, which has GABA mimetic activity. The free amino acids present in the root include aspartic acid, glycine, tyrosine, alanine, proline, tryptophan, glutamic acid and cystine.

 

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends Ashwagandha in impotency. His claim could not be sustained in a recent experiment and raises a doubt about the equation of classical Ashwagandha with Withania somnifera. A methanolic extract of Withania somniferaroot induced a marked impairment in libido, sexual performance, sexual vigour and penile dysfunction in male rats. (Llayperuma etal, Asian J Androl, 2002, 295-298.) The total alkaloids of the root exhibited prolonged hypotensive, Brady cardiac and depressant

Action: of the higher cerebral centres in several experimental animals. A withanolide-free aqueous fraction isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera exhibited anti-stress activity in a dose-dependent manner in mice. (Phytother Res 2003, 531-6.) (See also Simon Mills; American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 2000; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 2007.)

 

Dosage: Root-3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. I.)

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